This eighth-grade science lesson is about the structure and function of the heart. It is the third lesson in a sequence of 10 lessons on heart and blood circulation. The lesson is 45 minutes in duration. There are 24 students in the class.

00:00:04Very well, ladies and gentlemen, we are, uh, shh-
00:00:21You can, uh, demonstrate that in a minute... Okay people, we will start the second period with biology and I don't see it in front of everyone yet, so you can put it on your desk.
00:00:34I have--
00:00:35Nothing at all?
00:00:36No. I have, uh--
00:00:38Look along with your neighbor in his book. Yes, I know, it's becoming familiar indeed.
00:00:43I even called you up.
00:00:44[ laughter ]
00:00:47Very well, if we are all ready now... Uh, yesterday we talked about the structure of the heart, right? We had a diagram on the blackboard.
00:00:55For today you have read something about it and you have done assignments. First of all, anyone who has questions about the section you have read?
00:01:04(inaudible). No.
00:01:07No? Well, the assignment- we'll look back at the assignment in a minute, in case you don't understand it. Okay let's go there now.
00:01:12For today you were supposed to do the assignments which belong to Basic Subject Matter Four. So you can put those in front of you.
00:01:18First assignment, assignment six, page 136. And you will also need your cutting book with that. So that is the first one we are going to discuss.
00:01:27Yes? Well, you have seen the picture in the cutting book- yesterday I have already helped several people with that- this thing here.
00:01:33Uh, today we have brought in a real heart. That means, not truly a real heart yet, but a real model.
00:01:40We will use this heart model to point out certain things in a little while.
00:01:43And then- well, as you already know, next week in the lab- Daniel. Yes? Are you ready?
00:01:50Next week in the lab, we will be looking at a real heart and we will also try to find its parts.
00:01:55Uh, the diagram which we had on the blackboard yesterday was schematic.
00:01:58This one looks a little more like the thing we see here, it gets a little closer to reality.
00:02:03Well, yesterday a few people said, "Now I really can't find the blood vessels anymore."
00:02:07But you should get used to that little by little. Well, first you should try to figure out what is left and what is right.
00:02:11Once you know that then you can always classify: atrium, ventricle. Once you know that, then you have to know which blood vessel comes out of the right ventricle.
00:02:17And which one out of the left ventricle and after that, you can just fill everything in.
00:02:21Yes? We'll just go down the numbers and then we will see whether you were able to name them correctly and then we'll see whether you were able to color them in correctly. All right?
00:02:29The first one... Maarten? What did you call it?
00:02:31The aorta.
00:02:32Yes, very good. Yes, that one comes out of the left ventricle, right, and that is really the first thing you look for and then you will find number one: the aorta.
00:02:39That's correct. Number two, Klaas?
00:02:42The right atrium.
00:02:43Right, the right atrium, that's a small jump to the other side, the right atrium. Number three, Leo?
00:02:48The left ventricle.
00:02:49That's correct. The left ventricle. And number four, John?
00:02:53Pulmonary vein.
00:02:54That's the pulmonary vein, right, it ends up in the left atrium, that's the pulmonary vein. If this is going too fast for anyone, let me know. Number five, Mathias?
00:03:03Uh, postcaval vein.
00:03:05Uh... I have to look for it a second... yes, the postcaval vein. That one enters the right atrium, right, we said that yesterday. Just the caval vein.
00:03:12Well, there's one that comes from below, so that's the postcaval vein.
00:03:15And later we will see that we also have one which comes from the top. Number six, uh, Mario?
00:03:20Um, pulmonary artery.
00:03:22Yes, excellent, that one comes from the right ventricle, the pulmonary artery.
00:03:25Susan, number seven?
00:03:27Precaval vein.
00:03:28That's also correct, that's the other one, the precaval vein, ends up in the same atrium. Then number eight, Connie?
00:03:37Oh, left- left heart valves.
00:03:39Number eight are the... right or left?
00:03:42Left hart valves.
00:03:44The other side. Oh, yes, sorry, number eight is shown on both sides. //Yes, that's correct.
00:03:47//Oh, yes.
00:03:48Those are the heart valves. Right, I was looking at the other ones. We call the valves that are located between the atrium and the ventricle "the heart valves."
00:03:54They weren't on the blackboard yesterday but you should know those as well.
00:03:58Then number nine, uh, Sonja?
00:04:01The left atrium.
00:04:02That's correct, the left atrium. Number ten, Daniel?
00:04:08Uh, right ventricle?
00:04:09Yup. Very good, the right ventricle. Number 11, Katja?
00:04:13Uh, the heart septum.
00:04:15Yes, that's also correct, that piece in between, right, that is totally closed, the heart septum. And the last one, number 12, Fiona?
00:04:21The semilunar valves.
00:04:22Yes, correct. The semilunar valves. Those valves we didn't cover yet yesterday, right?
00:04:27The valves between the atrium and the ventricle are called the heart valves and you have those on the right as well as on the left.
00:04:31And soon we will also be looking at how the heart works.
00:04:34Uh, the valves at the start of the coronary arteries, the pulmonary artery as well as of the aorta are the semilunar valves.
00:04:41And later on we will also see that in the lab. Okay, let's go to the real thing for a moment. For when you get a heart in front of you in the lab.
00:04:48First we always look to see what is the right side and what is the left side. Well, you can also see that by the thickness, later we will get back to that.
00:04:54This is the left ventricle and that is the right ventricle and you can see that by the blood vessels because they are colored, just like the color you had to do.
00:05:02This one comes out of the right ventricle, colored blue, is the pulmonary artery. Look at your drawing to see if you gave it the correct color, deoxygenated blood.
00:05:12The red one comes out of the left ventricle, it's the large aorta, oxygenated blood. And on the back side you can see what is added in the atrium,
00:05:20Okay, those are red so they are coming from the lungs, and they end up in the left atrium.
00:05:25And we have one here, at the bottom, and one at the top- that one ends up in the other atrium. So those are the caval veins. All right?
00:05:34I can open the ventricle- we will do that right away with the next exercise because we can then see how it looks from the inside.
00:05:39All right? Anyone have a question about this assignment? Stefan?
00:05:43Is a human heart also that size?
00:05:44Well, what do you think?
00:05:47No, (inaudible).
00:05:48No, it is actually smaller. The human heart is about the size of a fi- a little bigger than a fist. Okay? This is just a larger model of it. Okay?
00:05:55And a chicken heart--which we'll see later--is only so big, so it's a lot smaller. Yes, it's a bit, well-
00:06:00So, the pump, right, in your body: the bigger the body, the more it needs to pump, the larger the heart is, too, okay?
00:06:06So a human heart is not that big. Yes?
00:06:08Uh, coloring and the arrows, for that assignment. Could everybody manage that?
00:06:13Color everything that's on the left side red, and everything that's on the right side blue.
00:06:17And the arrows we had on the board yesterday, right? //How it flows around-
00:06:21Okay, anyone who still has a question about this?
00:06:24If so, I will be coming by soon and then take a look. We'll continue with assignment seven. "Where in our body can we find the heart?" Bert?
00:06:32In the center.
00:06:34In the center, yes. But, //in which center?
00:06:37For me, the center is around here. Is that where my heart is?
00:06:39Where is it, then?
00:06:40In the center of the chest, the thorax.
00:06:41Right, in the center of the thorax. A little towards the left under the sternum. That's really precise.
00:06:47In the center of the thorax, a little towards the left under the sternum.
00:06:52Okay, which blood vessels are attached to the heart? Through which oxygen and nutrients are brought to the heart itself? Uh, Mark?
00:07:02The coronary arteries.
00:07:03Yes, that's correct, the coronary arteries. So, if I look at the heart itself, Mark, the coronary arteries, are they the blue ones or the red ones?
00:07:12The red ones, yes, that's correct. The coronary arteries are the first branches from the aorta. That is this red one, right, it goes to all the organs.
00:07:19Well, the first organ it goes to is the heart itself. The heart does not get any blood from within, only from the outside.
00:07:25So, it comes here- this comes straight from there, and those red things are in fact the coronary arteries. Because they are rich in oxygen and they bring nutrients. Okay?
00:07:35What are those things called which remove the carbon dioxide and waste products again? Karin? For question three.
00:07:42The coronary veins.
00:07:43Yes, very good. Those are the coronary veins. So, arteries bring it in, and veins take it back. Those are the blue things that flow here, okay?
00:07:52Those are the coronary veins.
00:07:56Then you had to fill in for question four, which part of the heart has the thickest wall? An atrium or a ventricle?
00:08:02Uh, Cindy?
00:08:04Um, the ventricle.
00:08:06The ventricle. That's correct. And why?
00:08:09Because that one has to pump the furthest.
00:08:10Yup, that one has to pump the furthest, right? On top there is some text, it says, "The thickness is determined by how far the blood has to be pumped around."
00:08:19Okay, the atrium pumps it only into the ventricle, right?
00:08:23The ventricle then pumps it either into the lungs or the rest of the body, a lot further. Therefore the atrium has a much thinner wall than the ventricle. That's correct.
00:08:31Now we can also differentiate among the various ventricles. Victor, which one has the thickest wall?
00:08:36The left ventricle because it has to do the systemic blood circulation.
00:08:40That one has to do the systemic blood circulation, right, so it must pump the blood a lot further, right, that's correct.
00:08:46Okay, has everyone got that? The more the heart has to pump, the thicker the wall.
00:08:50All right, if we take this heart--that's the beauty of this model because we can also open it up--we can just remove a piece and then we can look inside the ventricles.
00:08:59Now, you can see that this area is the left ventricle, right? This point at the bottom is on the left, and this is the right ventricle.
00:09:05If I compare the walls on the left side and on the right side, then you'll see that this one is a lot thinner than that one. And soon you will be able to see that very nicely in reality.
00:09:13This one must be much more muscular because the blood has to go through the whole body, into my toes, into my fingers.
00:09:20Okay, from this point it only needs to go to the lungs, and that is rather close, isn't it?
00:09:23The heart is located in the chest cavity and so are the lungs, so this doesn't have to pump as hard. Yes? So this one is a lot thinner than that one.
00:09:29Atria are even thinner than that, because all that goes through them is the blood that flows from here into the ventricle. And that almost goes by itself.
00:09:37Would there be differences between the left and right atrium, Ellen, in terms of the walls?
00:09:44Is there a difference in the distances that the two atria have to pump?
00:09:47I don't think so.
00:09:48No, I don't think so either. This one goes to this ventricle and that one goes to that ventricle, that's the same distance.
00:09:53So the atrium on the left and the right, there is no difference between them, right? They are of equal size.
00:09:56And the atrium can also be opened up and then you can see, this is still a small, thin wall. And it is not so red, not so muscular, therefore it can't pump that hard.
00:10:04And the last thing that you can see here, is this white here- I don't know whether you can see it well- those are the heart valves which are located in between here.
00:10:12And you can see at the bottom here, by the pulmonary artery in this case, that there are three, exactly three, semilunar valves. Okay?
00:10:19They are only located at the beginning of the arteries. We will soon take a look at how they function.
00:10:27Okay, the last assignment was assignment eight.
00:10:30The diagram that you have to fill in there. And that may have been difficult, the pulmonary blood circulation and the systemic blood circulation.
00:10:36You were supposed to do that with regards to the picture that was shown on the previous page. Now, let's see whether that was successful.
00:10:41The pulmonary blood circulation, Sam?
00:10:43The right ventricle, pulmonary artery, lungs, pulmonary vein, left atrium.
00:10:48Absolutely correct. Right. One more time, right ventricle. The agreement is that the bloodstream starts where the pumping starts and that is always in a ventricle.
00:11:00The right ventricle. Okay, we will just follow that. Right ventricle, where does the blood go to?
00:11:05The blood goes to the pulmonary artery.
00:11:09It then ends up in the lungs... returns through the pulmonary vein...
00:11:19And ultimately ends up in the left atrium, okay? Always on the other side of the heart.
00:11:30Leo, did you understand it or see it?
00:11:32Right ventricle, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, and then?
00:11:34No, you missed one. Right ventricle, pulmonary artery... where does the pulmonary artery go to?
00:11:38The lungs?
00:11:39The lungs. Pulmonary vein, left atrium. What is the function of the pulmonary blood circulation, Leo?
00:11:45To absorb nutrients- no, to remove it.
00:11:48No. Where does it go- where does it go to next? Just think calmly.
00:11:51[ laughter ] Um... to the lungs.
00:11:54To the lungs. What then is its function, what is it going to do?
00:11:59Yes, what?
00:12:00I don't know.
00:12:01Um... does it bring anything?
00:12:03No? Does it...?
00:12:05Pick up.
00:12:06Almost. Pick up oxygen. Then what does it take away?
00:12:10Waste products.
00:12:11No, no, no. This is the pulmonary blood circulation. What does it take away, what do you eventually exhale again?
00:12:14Carbon dioxide.
00:12:15Okay, good. So it picks up the oxygen and it takes the carbon dioxide away. That's the function of the pulmonary blood circulation. The systemic blood circulation. Um... Karel?
00:12:25Um, the left ventricle?
00:12:28That is correct, the left ventricle.
00:12:32All organs, right.
00:12:33Uh, caval veins.
00:12:35Caval veins.
00:12:36Then the right atrium.
00:12:37Excellent, now we are back where we started. So we start in the left ventricle--we start again in a ventricle--then we get the aorta, the artery of the body.
00:12:45Then all the organs: the heart, stomach, intestines, you name it, everything in between there.
00:12:50Next are the caval veins, and finally I end up in the right atrium... Okay? Okay. Who has a question about this section? Sam?
00:13:01You said that nutrients are picked up by the, uh, pulmonary blood circulation. Does it go to the lungs or does it go-
00:13:06No, nutrients are not picked up by the pulmonary blood circulation. Where are they picked up //instead, then?
00:13:10//By the systemic one.
00:13:11With the systemic. Where would you pick them up?
00:13:13At the small intestine.
00:13:14At the small intestine. Very good. And then?
00:13:16Then it goes to the organs and it delivers it, and then it goes back again.
00:13:20And then it goes back, right. Waste products are brought back.
00:13:22So first it must always pass the, uh... small intestine?
00:13:27Right. To pick up it goes past the small intestine and then it collects //nutrients.
00:13:30//(What does the one do) that flows up, the precaval vein?
00:13:34What it does?
00:13:35Yes, it flows up, doesn't it?
00:13:36Yes, that's correct.
00:13:37That one must also first go down, to the small intestine and then back up again.
00:13:40Right, in the small intestine it picks up nutrients, then it has to, in this case--as we saw yesterday, the double blood circulation--it has to go through the heart,
00:13:46And then it can, subsequently, go through the pulmonary vein or pulmonary artery- and end up anywhere it wants. Okay?
00:13:52So if blood from the small intestine has to go to your toes, for example, then it could be that it will take a long detour, okay?
00:13:58It goes from the small intestine, ends up in a caval vein, has to go through the whole heart, must go to the lungs, again through the entire heart and then, finally, it can go to the toes.
00:14:06Okay? But that will come later when we look at blood circulation. Mario, you still had a question or not anymore?
00:14:09No, never mind.
00:14:10Okay. Very well, now we are going to look at Basic Subject Matter Five, how the heart works. And... go to page 137.
00:14:18At figure 11 there are three pictures. I will now discuss these with you, then you can read it again in the text later.
00:14:25And for the assignment you are supposed to fill it in yourself. Uh, how does the heart function?
00:14:31Okay, the first thing that happens--we will just look at one heartbeat--the first thing that happens is at the top.
00:14:36The two atria on there: the right and the left one, those pinch together at the same time.
00:14:43It always happens simultaneously, right and left, otherwise you would get an irregular mess, everything mixed up.
00:14:47So one blood circulation. So it is important that you also have one pump which operates normally. The first thing I do are the atria that pinch together--
00:14:55Well, when the atria pinch together, what happens then? Sonja? Where does the blood go?
00:14:59Uh, to the ventricles.
00:15:01Yes, correct. It all sinks down into the ventricles below. Okay? So that means for the valves, which are located in between here- open or closed?
00:15:08Uh, open.
00:15:09Open. Okay, it has to go from the atrium to the ventricle and so the valves are open at that moment. Well, what happens then?
00:15:15Next, the ventricles contract, the ones which are located down here,
00:15:18they can exert a lot of strength for contractions, they have a much thicker wall. All right, when the ventricles contract, where does the blood go then? Tom?
00:15:26Um, to the veins.
00:15:28Which veins?
00:15:29Uh, the aorta and the pulmonary artery.
00:15:32Yes, so we call that a vein or a...?
00:15:37Yes, artery. It goes away from the heart. That is an artery, and it goes indeed into the pulmonary artery over here and the aorta in here.
00:15:44And they do it simultaneously, right? The ventricles contract simultaneously, and then it goes into the arteries.
00:15:49Tom? The heart valves. Those things, are they open or closed at that moment?
00:15:53Um, closed.
00:15:54Those are closed. Okay, we have- we saw yesterday that those valves sort of hang this way.
00:15:58When the blood from the atrium enters the ventricle then it merely falls right through it.
00:16:03And when it returns, when the ventricle contracts then the valves close up against each other. And that fits perfectly.
00:16:09Okay, when the valves close properly--which is the case for a healthy person--they will truly seal perfectly, and blood cannot run back from the ventricle to the atrium.
00:16:17And I don't want it to do that because then it would go exactly in the wrong direction, it just came from there, then it would just go back again.
00:16:22So then they shut against it at the bottom, the valves close- or the heart valves close shut. Okay?
00:16:27Then there is also a short interval which is called the diastole, then everything relaxes, the atria and the ventricle. Well, the blood was located in the arteries,
00:16:36And the only thing that happens now is that the blood flows through the body to the lungs and all other organs.
00:16:41And then the semilunar valves start to operate. Willem, what will they do at the moment the heart is at rest?
00:16:47Uh, they open up.
00:16:49Will they open up, those in between here?
00:16:51Um... (let's see). No.
00:16:56Why not?
00:16:57Well, because blood doesn't need to go through there.
00:17:00Well, "doesn't need to"? It even-
00:17:03Well, it even shouldn't. Why shouldn't it go through here?
00:17:06Um... I don't really know.
00:17:10Where would it end up then, if it would go back through here again?
00:17:13Um... it ends up in the lungs.
00:17:17No, no, no. If it- where does it, where will it go? Say, it goes in here into the pulmonary artery? Where does it go?
00:17:24Um... the lungs? It goes- yes, it goes towards the lungs.
00:17:30Okay, goes towards the lungs. Why is it not allowed here, in this direction, because where would it end up then?
00:17:34Oh, then it goes all the way back to the heart.
00:17:36Then it goes back to the heart, okay? And that I don't want, right? I want- it is gone now, I want it to stay gone.
00:17:41So those valves--there are exactly three--they also work all in the same manner, as you will be able to see real nicely later on with the real heart.
00:17:46Those are also like these crescent shaped things, some kind of little bags.
00:17:50When the blood sinks back into it, it works in exactly the opposite way, at the top they drop against each other, it drops shut.
00:17:56And if your valves function well, then not a drop of blood will pass through and all of it will move directly to the lungs. Okay?
00:18:02Maybe you have been in the hospital and have had an exam where a doctor, with a stethoscope, you know, feels your chest.
00:18:08Well, what that doctor is doing is indeed listening to your heartbeat but he also listens to the valves shutting down.
00:18:14That way he can hear whether your valves are closing properly. So, the first thing you hear are the valves over here, which are closing.
00:18:20At the moment that the ventricle contracts--like we said-- the heart valves will close. So that gives what we call a heart tone.
00:18:25A trained doctor can hear whether this sounds good or not.
00:18:30The second one, that follows immediately, is when the heart is pausing, then those valves close.
00:18:35And that happens again with a thud. They shut closed. And again that gives a heart tone that the doctor can hear.
00:18:40Yes, so with one of those stethoscopes you can listen, you can hear if someone's valves are closing properly or whether that is not the case, okay?
00:18:48All right, that is the heartbeat. That's just one.
00:18:51Okay, your heart beats about 60 times per minute. So that means that entire- this entire ceremony takes place every minute about 60 times.
00:18:57You don't notice a thing of all that. You don't have to do anything for it either, because a healthy heart just does that by itself. Okay?
00:19:03Very good. Any questions about the heart, how it functions, how it is put together?
00:19:09No? Okay, then we'll go and uh, then you'll first do the assignment that is part of Basic Subject Matter Five. And at the end of the session we will check that.
00:19:15Uh, this time please copy the whole chart, so not just the words you are asked to fill in. Because you want to make a short summary for yourself.
00:19:22Uh, when you have done that, as you can see in your day planner, right, we will proceed to Basic Subject Matter Six.
00:19:25There you will look at a coronary. What is happening when someone is having a coronary. And in case you have finished that then you may continue on a little further. Okay?
00:19:33Let's see how far we are and at the end of the lesson we will check the exercises.
00:20:07[ laughter ] When you see me, that means you're in the picture, too.
00:20:13Ladies, are you getting started?
00:20:14Yes, sure.
00:20:20John, are you getting started?
00:20:44What you were just saying, when the valves are closed, then aren't those semilunar things open?
00:20:52When what valves are closed? Those?
00:20:54Okay, when these are closed, then those are open.
00:20:57Okay? But then we are at this moment, right?
00:20:58And one instant later during, uh, diastole, then these open up again and these close right after that.
00:21:07But, but I thought it was different.
00:21:10Because I had said it differently?
00:21:12Now, look- we can look that up later [ laughter ] on the video. No, look, anyway what has happened first, is, uh, these open up... the blood can go down.
00:21:21Okay, then those go- then those are still closed, then the ventricle contracts, then those open up, and then these close, because otherwise the blood could flow back.
00:21:28And finally, during diastole, these open up and those close down. Anyway, that's how it is supposed to be.
00:21:33I see.
00:21:34All right? Okay.
00:21:38If there are people who have questions in regards to the cutting book or who aren't sure whether it is correct, just give me a signal and I will come over to take a look.
00:21:45A (pun)?
00:21:46//A signal.
00:21:47//A signal. Like a hand up in the air.
00:21:48You know, a (inaudible).
00:21:49(inaudible) where does this one go?
00:21:53Let me see. This one, this is the other caval vein, right, so it also has been drawn in blue. It comes from there.
00:22:03But where does it come out of?
00:22:04Okay, this one comes from all the organs in the body, the post caval vein, that means, in fact, all the organs that are located below the heart.
00:22:12This one comes from all the organs that are located //above the heart.
00:22:13//From the head?
00:22:14Yes, from the head, and so forth. Okay, so that comes together in one atrium, and then it repeats again: this one to the one lung, that one to the other lung.
00:22:21And then it comes- here you actually have the same story, right?
00:22:24Look, here it enters again, you have marked it with red arrows. But here as well. Now I only have blue, that should also be a red arrow, you see?
00:22:31This one reenters from this lung and that one reenters from that lung.
00:22:36And then they enter that atrium and then, ffft! Onwards, through the body. Okay, agreed?
00:22:44And there was still somebody else. Daniel?
00:22:48Yes, right here. Is that correct with these little squares? If it goes this way, then it should go here and over there, right?
00:22:55Yes, that's correct, //because-?
00:22:56//And where does it go to again?
00:22:57Okay, you tell me.
00:22:59Um, let's see.
00:23:01What was that thing called?
00:23:05Um, pulmonary vein.
00:23:06No, almost.
00:23:07This here.
00:23:08Right. And what was it called?
00:23:10The pulmonary artery.
00:23:11Okay. So, where does- where does this one go and where does that one go?
00:23:14To the lungs.
00:23:15Right, and how many lungs do we have?
00:23:18Okay, so one goes to this one, one goes to the other. Right? And now you let them return together over here.
00:23:24That is not really wrong, but if you take a close look at this one, then you can notice that you have two, one here and one there.
00:23:29Oh, so one of them //comes out over here?
00:23:30//So this one goes over here and the other one probably goes over there.
00:23:34//Okay, right.
00:23:35//Okay? So they just pass the lungs and then go past this. Right? Okay.
00:23:43Okay, for assignment nine you have to make complete sentences, so please write everything down in full.
00:24:02I only did words.
00:24:04What is coming?
00:24:06//What did you get?
00:24:07//Just words.
00:24:08//Just words.
00:24:09No, but this will make for a good summary, right?
00:24:20That's the pulse beat, isn't it (inaudible)?
00:24:22"As the pulse beat..."
00:24:25"This contraction can be noticed as the pulse beat."
00:24:27Yes? When you, uh- when you feel your heart, for example here, this beating-
00:24:34//Well, every- each time that you feel that, then, uh, the ventricles contract.
00:24:38Right, right, because they are the strongest, so you feel- Contraction of the atria you don't feel it at all.
00:24:42Diastole nothing happens, so you don't feel that either. So the heart beat you're feeling is the moment that the ventricles contract.
00:24:50All right? So you feel that as your pulse.
00:24:59At number four, aren't you supposed to write, "The blood flows through the pulmonary arteries?" Or could you just write, "arteries"?
00:25:03No, no, no. It has to be as precise as possible. Besides, you should use these words to fill in.
00:25:07I see!
00:25:08I see. Didn't read that.
00:25:09Oh. Okay.
00:25:10[ laughter ] //Didn't see that.
00:25:11//(inaudible) floats into the aorta and in the (inaudible).
00:25:16The heart valves are then also closed, right?
00:25:19(inaudible) "Contraction of the atria. The atria contract so that the blood flows into the ventricles. The heart valves are now closed."
00:25:25Then can the blood still enter the ventricles?
00:25:30No. You can see that here, in fact it's part of this, right? With the first picture.
00:25:35You see? They go, those are- //it just drops down by itself, it opens by itself.
00:25:36//Ah, yeah, right.
00:25:38Nice microphone.
00:25:39Interesting, isn't it?
00:25:41//I have to get used to this thing.
00:25:42//Jerry Springer!
00:25:43[ laughter ]
00:25:44We'll do that in the last five minutes, okay? Show time...
00:25:46//[ laughter ]
00:25:49[ laughter ]
00:25:56But I'm sure you noticed that you are in the picture as well, //right?
00:26:00I mean, I can see exactly who's, um, not paying attention.
00:26:03[ laughter ]
00:26:14So if you do this, (inaudible).
00:26:21Yes, that is your pulse beat, right?
00:26:25Because what do you feel then, really? Which one of the three?
00:26:31This one, I think.
00:26:33They're different ones. Which one do you feel, now? You think you can feel that one?
00:26:37This is contracting.
00:26:38Oh, yes- no, //this is contracting.
00:26:41//Yup. Right, look, this is a contraction of the atrium, which you don't feel; it is not very strong. This is diastole; you feel nothing.
00:26:47And when the ventricles contract, that is so forceful, that is what you can feel in your wrist or in your neck, right? That is when they contract.
00:26:54Or here?
00:26:55Yes, or there, yes. When you feel you heart thumping... and feeling it thump, that-
00:26:58Could that happen in your head?
00:27:01That would be bad news.
00:27:04Yes, yes, that's correct. Then you can for- and it's the same thing. What you feel each time is this moment, so each time that the ventricles contract,
00:27:10that- that you can feel also when you are having a headache, when it pounds, you name it.
00:27:14Sometimes I also feel it in my ankle.
00:27:16Yes, that's possible, if you have an injury or something, or a, uh- yes.
00:27:20Madam, what are we supposed to fill in here? "From the... the blood flows in the... A part does..."
00:27:26//"A part does..." Right, you can choose from these, you see?
00:27:28Yes, I know. So then you get, "From the pulmonary and caval veins the blood flows into the... //atria,"
00:27:35//Yes, that's correct.
00:27:36"Part of it flows into the ventricles."
00:27:38Yes, well, perfect. Yes. Okay, the valves are open automatically, here you see it enter the atria, then it naturally flows into the ventricle.
00:27:46Oh, yes.
00:27:54Are you making complete sentences here? Just for //yourself?
00:27:57//Do I have to?
00:27:58//You do. Because this is going to be a summary of the entire paragraph, so just fill that in for yourself.
00:28:06Well, I //wouldn't believe Maarten either.
00:28:08//For eight-
00:28:09For eight. //Let me see-
00:28:11Shouldn't that be, "This is followed by the diastole. From the," um-
00:28:14let's see, that's "the caval veins and lung- or no- yes,
00:28:17//Yes, correct.
00:28:18//The caval and pulmonary veins, the blood flows into the... atrium"?
00:28:25Okay, it flo- if it- "The caval veins and the pulmonary veins" is correct. So if it actually flows out of those, then where in the heart will it end up?
00:28:32Okay, in the atrium.
00:28:34Okay, great. So in the atrium, and already partially in the-
00:28:36In the heart //and the ventricles.
00:28:38//Heart. Uh, the ventricles.
00:28:39In the ventricles, right, and you can also see that here, right? During diastole. Because these valves are open, they work downwards.
00:28:44So, it sinks- when it sinks into the atrium then a part of it just sinks right through it.
00:28:48So it just sinks into the ventricles.
00:28:49All right.
00:28:50Yes? So that's fine.
00:28:53Here, um, "From the caval veins and the pulmonary veins, the blood flows into the atrium and partly into the ventricles."
00:29:04Yup. Those are the same valves, they are now positioned like this, so they-
00:29:07Yes, it sinks- they're not blocking anything now. So the moment it sinks into the atrium, //part of it goes down along with it.
00:29:12Oh, I understand now. Yup,
00:29:30Figure that out by yourself.
00:29:32Yes, but look, that is not a sentence, is it? "The contraction can be noticed as the..."
00:29:37Okay, you may choose from these here.
00:29:38Pulse beat, sure, if you fill in "pulse beat" and then period. But that can't be right.
00:29:41Sure it is.
00:29:42//Of course not.
00:29:43//Why not?
00:29:44That's not a sentence. "This contraction can be noticed as the pulse beat."
00:29:47Sure, the p- okay, how would you rather formulate it then, in better Dutch?
00:29:53"When the pulse beat moves," or something like that? Then it needs something after that.
00:29:56No, no, no. The pulse beat itself is the event. Okay?
00:30:01You could also say, "That contraction can be felt as the heartbeat."
00:30:04//I'm good at gambling, wouldn't you say?
00:30:05//That's correct. Yes. Okay, you can fill in (both differently).
00:30:08But you see? That's what you feel, what you hear.
00:30:21The heart valves are then open, (aren't they)? Those are, um-
00:30:26Where are you, at the second one?
00:30:28Yes, at two. The heart valves are then open, aren't they?
00:30:35Or, uh, when?
00:30:40Yes, (as well).
00:30:44Otherwise the blood can't flow through, of course.
00:30:47Uh-huh... Let's see, and for six?
00:30:54But I haven't gotten to that one yet.
00:30:55Oh, no.
00:31:05If you are working seriously, you are allowed in the picture.
00:31:32You shouldn't look into the camera.
00:31:34[ laughter ]
00:31:37You can't really pretend that it is not there, right?
00:31:40You actually do work more seriously.
00:31:43Two ways? I only have //one.
00:31:46Over here, for this one, uh, "Immediately afterwards, the atria contract,"
00:31:52"the ventricles contract,"
00:31:53That's what she just said, right?
00:31:54"this causes the blood to flow into the..."
00:31:55I don't understand that. This-
00:31:58These are the ventricles, aren't they?
00:31:59Yes, that is correct. Well, you could follow your own arrows. So, when this one contracts, that one, where does the blood go by itself?
00:32:05This way,
00:32:07//then that one, and that one.
00:32:08That's fine. And now //you should-
00:32:09//Is it the pulmonary artery?
00:32:10That's correct.
00:32:11And the (artery).
00:32:12And the (artery), right.
00:32:15No, that was that.
00:32:19Okay, and he can't go that way because these //valves close.
00:32:21//We're done.
00:32:22Really? You finished Basic Subject Matter Six already?
00:32:24That's the one that, uh-
00:32:25That is the next one, right?
00:32:28//You did? Then you can just work on, okay?
00:32:30Yes, I think so, I have already been (inaudible).
00:32:31Over here, uh, "The semilunar valves are, uh... closed"?
00:32:38Uh, "Immediately after that the-"
00:32:41"Immediately after that, the ventricles contract. This causes the blood to flow into the pulmonary artery and aorta. This contraction can be noticed as the pulse beat."
00:32:48"The heart valves are then closed. The semilunar valves are then..."
00:32:52All right, what would you make those?
00:32:58That is over here, right, this phase.
00:33:00Yes. Yes.
00:33:02Okay, I agree with you on this. What is the benefit of the heart valves being closed?
00:33:07Why are they closed?
00:33:11Well, the blood doesn't need to go in there anymore, right?
00:33:12Well, "doesn't need to"? Should even be avoided //in there, right?
00:33:13//Blood should be avoided in there.
00:33:14Right, because otherwise it would back up into the //atrium.
00:33:16Yes, yes, yes, yes-
00:33:17Okay, the semilunar valves, what about those? Should they be closed or should they be open?
00:33:22Oh, they should be...
00:33:27Right, because where are they located?
00:33:28Over here somewhere, I think.
00:33:31Yes, exactly. Those are the ones, right. Okay, so they're at the beginning of the arteries. If I close them, then I can pump all I want,
00:33:38but the blood could never //enter the artery, right?
00:33:39//Right, I see.
00:33:40Yes? So these open up automatically.
00:33:41Those are open.
00:33:53"Come (inaudible). After that, (inaudible)."
00:33:59(I don't know).
00:34:07(You keep on using markers). Hey, Mario, you still don't have anything there. Fill it in.
00:34:16Are you a little nervous?
00:34:19(I find it very //scary).
00:34:20No, //but why don't you fill it in?
00:34:23Because I'm really very nervous.
00:34:24No, but- this- don't start with- don't start with ten when you haven't finished those yet, okay?
00:34:29We will check those in a minute, so that makes sense. Okay, and what you see here, you can find back //over there.
00:34:34//Yes, I know. But not everything.
00:34:35Yes, though. I'm sure you can do it. You must choose from these words //over here.
00:34:39//Yes, I know.
00:34:41Okay, that should work out fine, right?
00:34:44All right then.
00:34:47[ laughter ] Mario's notebook was a little empty.
00:34:55And then he opens the door, "Hi, this is for the movie." [ laughter ]
00:34:58Is he going to film us at PE, madam? In the dressing room?
00:35:10Yes, we have that, right.
00:35:12I can only feel it on one side.
00:35:13You can only feel it on one side?
00:35:15Yes, look, I can't really find it.
00:35:18Somewhere there.
00:35:20Hey, what are you guys doing there?
00:35:24[ laughter ]
00:35:25[ laughter ]
00:35:25You can also feel it in your neck.
00:35:27Yes, there I //do feel it.
00:35:28//That is (nice).
00:35:29That is really, um-
00:35:30Can I try if I feel it on you?
00:35:33I can feel it, up here.
00:35:38I got it.
00:35:39Yes? Are you sure, or not?
00:35:42Yes, no really I've got it (inaudible).
00:35:43Yes, so you can- you can, in principle, feel how often your own heart beats per minute.
00:35:47Yes, we have that at PE sometimes, when we (inaudible).
00:35:50//Right, then you have to practice.
00:35:51And then I (can count up to a minute)-
00:35:52Right, but you may--and this you will learn at PE as well--you may never use your thumb because it beats in there, too. You should always use your other, uh, fingers.
00:35:57If you feel it well just on one side, then that is no problem. What you could do, too, is to... feel here, if you have found a spot.
00:36:02Right, this way. This will work out.
00:36:08Hey, gentlemen are we playing basketball here?
00:36:10Not yet.
00:36:11No, not yet.
00:36:13Jerry! Jerry! //Jerry!
00:36:17//(inaudible) for bio?
00:36:19Um, after the... let me think... okay, after the test week-
00:36:25We first have to take the test.
00:36:26Are we also getting a bio grade for that?
00:36:28Yes, you will also get a bio grade for that, but we are doing those together, right? PE and bio.
00:36:32Is that being filmed? No, right?
00:36:33No, that won't be filmed, no.
00:36:35Too bad.
00:36:36All right, uh, ladies and gentlemen, please, put in front of you assignment nine because after checking around I noticed that everybody is just about finished.
00:36:43So we will just check these and then finish off that section and then we'll start tomorrow with the heart attack.
00:36:47Yeah, jolly.
00:36:48But first let's see whether you succeeded. Uh, you had to write full sentences here. Of course this will end up being a perfect summary of the paragraph, right?
00:36:57You have pictures with it and if you filled it in correctly, then you understand essentially how the heart functions and how it sticks together.
00:37:04Okay? So, people who are still at Basic Subject Matter Six, should go back to Subject Matter Five.
00:37:09Which page is that?
00:37:10And now we will go down the sentences. Katja, do you want to start? Contraction of the atria, what is that?
00:37:15Just everything that's written in my notebook?
00:37:17No, just do the first sentence. We will just do sentence by sentence.
00:37:20Um, "The atria contract. This enables the blood to flow into the ventricles."
00:37:24Yes, very good. Atria contract, the blood flows into the ventricles. That's correct. If anyone, uh, has something else or it is going to fast, raise your hand, okay?
00:37:33Number two, Katja?
00:37:35"The heart valves are open at that time."
00:37:36The heart valves are open, right. At that moment the heart valves must be open, right? And then number three, Fiona?
00:37:43"The semilunar valves are closed."
00:37:45Right, at that time the semilunar valves are closed. They stop the blood and prevent it from flowing back.
00:37:51Then, the next phase we call that the contraction of the ventricles. Connie, what is number four?
00:37:56Um, "Immediately afterwards, the ventricles contract."
00:38:00That's good. Go on.
00:38:01Uh, through this the blood flows into the pulmonary arteries and aorta.
00:38:06Yes, that's very good. Yes, one into the pulmonary artery and one into the aorta. Now number five. "The contraction can be noticed as..."? Mathias, what did you fill in?
00:38:16That is, um, the pulse beat.
00:38:18Right, that nice sentence of yours, "The contraction can be noticed as the pulse beat." Okay? The pulse beat, you can indeed feel that in your wrist.
00:38:25Each time you feel this, you feel the ventricles contracting. All right?
00:38:29I understand you guys have done that during PE class, when you exert yourself then obviously you have a pulse rate that slowly increases.
00:38:36We are also going to do that in the experiment.
00:38:38Next is number six. "What is the status of the heart valves, when the, uh, ventricles contract?" John?
00:38:44The heart valves are then closed.
00:38:46Yes, very good. The heart valves are closed. And what is the status of the semilunar valves, John?
00:38:51"The semilunar valves are open."
00:38:54Right, the semilunar valves are open. That's correct.
00:38:58Then the diastole, that follows- that happens next. Jolien? What happens during diastole?
00:39:06//From the caval veins and pulmonary veins the blood flows into the atrium and (inaudible) ventricles.
00:39:10Yes, very good. From the caval veins and the pulmonary veins the blood partly flows into the atria.
00:39:15And because the valves are open, part of it, due to gravity, will just sink into the ventricles. Right?
00:39:20So, it goes- ends up there automatically. What is, at that moment, true about the heart valves, Klaas?
00:39:26Um, the heart valves are then open.
00:39:28The heart valves are then open, that's correct. And Maarten, the semilunar valves are?
00:39:33And last one, why are the semilunar valves closed?
00:39:36Well, um, so that the blood doesn't flow away prematurely.
00:39:39No, not so that it doesn't flow away prematurely. Why are the semilunar valves closed? Where is it not allowed back in?
00:39:45//In the-
00:39:46//In the heart.
00:39:47And in which part of the heart would it end up?
00:39:48In the ventricle.
00:39:49In the ventricle. Very good. The semilunar valves are closed, otherwise the blood would flow back into the ventricle. Mario, the last one? Shh.
00:39:55(Which one are we at)?
00:39:56Sentence eight. Uh, "Diastole. From the pulmonary veins and the caval veins... the blood flows into the atria and also partly into the ventricles."
00:40:08In the ventricles. Okay.
00:40:09Okay? Very well, is there anyone who still has questions about this section?
00:40:14Wait a minute.
00:40:17No? Then we will pack up- oh, I see, for you that doesn't count as "packing up."
00:40:20//Pack up and go.
00:40:21//Uh, we will- [ laughter ] We are quitting now.
00:40:23For tomorrow, Basic Subject Matter Six. No, that's for Friday, right? Basic Subject Matter Six and the exercise that comes with it. And then we will continue. Okay?
00:40:37Yes, usually you don't see it.
00:40:41And where is the Earth?
00:40:42(inaudible) Pluto.
00:40:45(inaudible) Jupiter.
00:40:46But Pluto is no longer part of it, //right?
00:40:47//Too far away.
00:40:50Pluto is smaller than (half of) the Moon.
00:40:54Pluto is useless.
00:40:55Yes, Pluto we will toss out as a planet.
00:40:59Jupiter (inaudible).
00:41:00We will toss Pluto out as planet.
00:41:02What is your next class?
00:41:04With Mr. De Vries?
00:41:06You guys are on the right spot here.
00:41:09Twice on one day.
00:41:12Monday and Tuesday.
00:41:14Yes, I heard that. Every day.
00:41:17Hey, were we supposed- supposed to do something for Spanish? I am sure we were, right?
00:41:21Such as?
00:41:26In the book?
00:41:27(No, not in your book but in your notebook).
00:41:29Yes... thank you. But from the book?
00:41:33Okay, then I will just go ahead and do that. Two, three, and four. Yes... But did you have a quiz last time?
00:41:40Uh, no, some (inaudible).
00:41:43But they did the numbers?
00:41:45Numbers we've already done.
00:41:48Indeed. So actually I should learn that, too.
00:41:53You are so rude!
00:41:54Yes, but, you know...
00:41:56(If you don't know it).
00:42:32Hey mister, leave that in one piece, please.
00:42:35Because, uh, well-
00:42:37Well, I mean, it's easy for me to accuse you right now, isn't it? You are being filmed from all sides.
00:42:45Jerry! Jerry!
00:42:48You guys have to sit here for another hour. How terrible.
00:42:53That isn't allowed either? Oh.
00:42:59Are you doing okay now, in this class?
00:43:01Much better? You just didn't feel well?
00:43:03Yes, no, but this time it wasn't really with blood. And then, yeah...
00:43:08Later, when we are in the lab, keep an eye on it yourself-
00:43:12//Because I mean, you'll just get the introduction and if we, um- otherwise when we get to the heart, you just make drawings instead.
00:43:18Because, uh- but just think of it yourself. Because when I see you sitting there, I will remember, but before you know it you've already fallen off your stool.
00:43:23Yes, no. No, but I am doing fine right now.
00:43:25Yes, that happens every year that someone passes-
00:43:29Okay? No problem. (We keep it nice).
00:43:34When you...?
00:43:35With your blood (inaudible).
00:43:36Yes, was that you? With- yes?
00:43:37No, that was (inaudible).
00:43:39Yes, but what do you expect?
00:43:45No, but-
00:43:47[ bell ]
00:43:48But really, it's-
00:43:49He got hysterical.
00:43:50Yes, but it is very easy to fool someone that way. You were not hysterical, //but it is-
00:43:53//Well, I really was.
00:43:54No, but you know- no, no, no. Those are just jokes that are- I mean- with field hockey training they pull something like that too sometimes.
00:43:59Then at some point, when something really happens, you'll think, forget it, it's just another practical joke from so and so, and then you leave //people alone.
00:44:05But what do you mean?
00:44:06Well, this boy who said that a wolf was chasing him, (inaudible).
00:44:10And then?
00:44:11He got eaten up.
00:44:12Yes, and then no one wanted to help him then anymore. Yes. Right, but those are the kinds of jokes of which I think, well, okay, those-
00:44:16But it was good, though.
00:44:18Yes, he was very (scared). No, but-
00:44:20We did that to Mario- we also did that to Mario. (inaudible).
00:44:28But I mean, what would, what would you do in a situation like that?
00:44:33Yes. You are- you are not going to tell someone, "Okay, I don't believe it, it's fake," or such.
00:44:37Sure, you really did it, but (inaudible)-
00:44:39Hey, please air out, now. Because uh- Hey guys, you may breathe normal again.